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Iran accused of manipulating the Palestinian cause while hiding its colonialism against Ahwazi Arabs

Image of Ahwazi children in Ahwaz, Iran [Ahwaz/Wikipedia]
Image of Ahwazi children in Ahwaz, Iran [Ahwaz/Wikipedia]

The Iranian regime often draws upon its “resistance” credentials, frequently condemning Israel’s forcible expropriation of Palestinian people’s lands  and homes as well as the expulsion of the people themselves, referring to these acts as crimes against humanity and systematic ethnic cleansing. Iran also makes regular and vociferous arguments that the international community should take punitive action against Israel by introducing sanctions.

However, the Tehran regime is conducting itself in a manner that bears a striking similarity to the Israeli government that it indicts for crimes against the Palestinian people. Iran does this by forcibly expropriating the lands, farms and homes of the Ahwazi Arab people of the southwestern Iranian province of Khuzestan, and “giving” them to Persian settlers who are offered generous financial incentives by the regime to move to the area.

News: The Iranian media’s interest in Palestine has declined

With Ahwazis denied basic rights, any compensation or any effective legal recourse against the regime’s decisions, the dispossessed Ahwazis are left destitute while ethnic Persian settlers seize their homes and lands in a manner not dissimilar from Israeli settlers in Palestine.

Anti-Arab racist policies

In the past few weeks, Iranian authorities have confiscated 20,000 more hectares of agricultural land from Ahwazi farmers in areas near the eponymous regional capital of Ahwaz. As always, the farmers and their families – who were given no notification or opportunity to raise legal objections to this abusive injustice – have been left with nothing. The land surrounding the village of Al-Tawil is set to be used for another massive sugar cane-growing and processing project, the eighth such initiative in the region, where the regime’s existing sugar cane-farming industry already operates at a loss.

Image of Ahwazi Arab farmers protesting in Ahwaz, Iran on 16 February 2015 [Yousef Azizi Benitorof/Facebook]

Image of Ahwazi Arab farmers protesting in Ahwaz, Iran on 16 February 2015 [Yousef Azizi Benitorof/Facebook]

The regime confiscated the lands and dispossessed the indigenous Arab farmers, with those interviewed by MEMO anonymised to protect them from regime persecution. These Ahwazi farmers say that they have worked the land for generations, while Iran has acted with casual indifference to their suffering, threatening to penalise and imprison any who protest against regime abuse.

The Iranian government claims that, far from being Ahwazi property, the land was actually “state-owned” and had been reserved for the construction of new settlements for incoming Persian settlers to the area. Tehran has already announced that these new communities will be furnished with a road network, mains water and electricity supply as well as facilities which were unavailable to the people who had been driven out of their homes.

One of the women dispossessed from her family home, Maryam, said that the Persian-dominated Iranian regime attempted to stop people from returning to their homes by securitising the area: “We didn’t just lose the lands that the regime stole from us; they created a ‘security zone’ all around our villages.”

Another young man, Karam, said starkly:

We have nothing, just our lands [and] without this we can’t survive; this land provides food for our families by growing vegetables, tomatoes and cereal crops.  Now they [the Iranian government] has taken almost all our lands, we’re facing the same fate as other rural areas, with the people left in poverty with no source of income.

Another despairing young rural man, Ali, who had been driven from his land, said that his family had been forced to migrate from their village to the capital Ahwaz, before Iran’s powerful Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) confiscated the remaining 40 hectares of land they owned and built a “Fajr” garrison on their land, referring to a group of Iranian paramilitaries.

Ali said:

My father did his best through the court and got a document saying that the land is ours – then the family got a threat from the intelligence services that if we didn’t stop pursuing legal action to reclaim their lands, we’d be imprisoned for many years.

Regime restrictions on the use of land for agricultural purposes have left thousands of rural families driven from their farms hungry and destitute, with many becoming ill as a result. Many children living in these communities are showing signs of stunted growth, with medics warning that conditions are regressing rather than progressing.

‘Axis of Resistance’?

In recent years, and in particular following the eruption of the Syrian crisis, Iran has been accused of creating a theatre out of its opposition to Israel in order to garner wide-spread regional support for its activities. Iranian leaders habitually threaten Israel – or “the Zionist entity” as it is commonly called in the Iranian media – but its actions that are perceived as being as expansionist and imperialist have garnered it increasingly intensifying criticism.

Iran’s Palestine conference was designed to shore-up Tehran’s regional position

Speaking to MEMO, Ruth Riegler, a Scottish journalist, said that “Iran’s ‘Axis of Resistance’ rhetoric  has been a monstrous cynical lie since the start,” and accusing Iran of “exploiting the cause of Palestinian freedom for its own political ends while continuing to be a vicious occupier and oppressor of another Arab people in Ahwaz.”

Meanwhile, Raed Baroud, a Palestinian rights activist, told MEMO:

The regime that occupies the land of our brothers in Ahwaz and crushes them under its boots can never be a supporter of the Arab Spring or a liberator of Palestine.

Although regional Arab powers do not effectively shed light on the Ahwazi cause, there are calls for the world to boycott Iran for its human rights abuses against the persecuted Arab minority.

Iran is now being criticised for at once claiming to support the rights, freedoms and liberties of Palestinians against Israeli colonisation, whilst simultaneously oppressing its own ethnic minorities and confiscating their lands.

Rather than address these concerns, Iran has instead sought to blame the increasing unrest in the Ahwazi populated region on Britain, Saudi Arabia and Israel. According to Tehran, these nations are conspiring to create “unrest by instigating a foreign plot in Khuzestan”.

However, with a number of Iranian minorities claiming persecution, including the Kurds and Baluchi people in southeastern Iran, those supportive of Ahwazi rights are instead suggesting that their cause is not an isolated instance of abuse, but something that impacts upon most non-Persian Iranians in a case of there being “no smoke without fire”.

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  • peepsqueek

    To add:
    UN News, GENEVA — 15 March 2013 — The cradle-to-grave attacks against Bahais in Iran represent one of the broadest and most obvious cases of state-sponsored religious persecution in the world, said Heiner Bielefeldt, the UN Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief. Speaking on 6 March 2013 in Geneva at a side event during the 22nd session of the Human Rights Council, Dr. Bielefeldt discussed the release of a new report by the Baha’i International Community, which documents rising violence against Iranian Baha’is and the utter impunity enjoyed by attackers.

    Over 100 Christian Churches in Egypt last few years. The same Egyptians that have made Bahai institutions and community activities illegal under Egyptian law since 1960. All Bahai community properties, including Bahai centers, libraries, and cemeteries, have been confiscated by the government and fatwas have been issued charging Bahai’s with apostasy. No wonder all the minorities in Egypt support President Sisi.

    The Bahai World Centre, the spiritual and administrative heart of the Bahai community, is located in Israel. The marginalization of the Iranian Bahai’s by current governments is rooted in historical efforts by Muslim clergy to persecute the religious minority.

    • Helen4Yemen

      Please do a find on “Shi’ite or Sunni” on this post. I have recreated the ODED-YINON PLAN here by selecting the parts that are relevant to current events such as Iraq, Iran, Syria, Egypt, and giving them headings to make them more interesting to read and grasp. The essence of the document is how to break up the Arab armies and countries so that the Jews now in Palestine will never have to face having to go back home like the French, the British, the Italians or the Crusaders. These colonists want to do all in their power so that they never would have to face a day where they may have to pack up and leave the area just like all the previous European colonial settlers like them had to vacate the area. All the turmoil we now see in the region has its roots due to the presence of these European Ashkenazi colonial settlers in Palestine. I provide the link for the document in its entirety at the bottom of the page, but reading what is posted here is sufficient. The document was written in 1982

      1- The Arab world is too fractured to pose a threat to the Jews in Palestine
      The Arab Moslem world, therefore, is not the major strategic problem which we shall face in the Eighties, despite the fact that it carries the main threat against Israel, due to its growing military might. This world, with its ethnic minorities, its factions and internal crises, which is astonishingly self-destructive, as we can see in Lebanon, in non-Arab Iran and now also in Syria, is unable to deal successfully with its fundamental problems and does not therefore constitute a real threat against the State of Israel in the long run, but only in the short run where its immediate military power has great import. In the long run, this world will be unable to exist within its present framework in the areas around us without having to go through genuine revolutionary changes.

      2- The Arab world is made up of ethnic groups hostile to one another
      The Moslem Arab World is built like a temporary house of cards put together by foreigners (France and Britain in the Nineteen Twenties), without the wishes and desires of the inhabitants having been taken into account. It was arbitrarily divided into 19 states, all made of combinations of minorities and ethnic groups which are hostile to one another, so that every Arab Moslem state nowadays faces ethnic social destruction from within, and in some a civil war is already raging.

      3- Algeria, Morocco,Tunisia are made up of Arabs and non-Arab Berbers
      Apart from Egypt, all the Maghreb states are made up of a mixture of Arabs and non-Arab Berbers. In Algeria there is already a civil war raging in the Kabile mountains between the two nations in the country. Morocco and Algeria are at war with each other over Spanish Sahara, in addition to the internal struggle in each of them. Militant Islam endangers the integrity of Tunisia and Qaddafi organizes wars which are destructive from the Arab point of view, from a country which is sparsely populated and which cannot become a powerful nation. That is why he has been attempting unifications in the past with states that are more genuine, like Egypt and Syria.

      4- Sudan is made up of four groups hostile to one another
      Sudan, the most torn apart state in the Arab Moslem world today is built upon four groups hostile to each other, an Arab Moslem Sunni minority which rules over a majority of non-Arab Africans, Pagans, and Christians.

      5- Egypt: Christian minority may want a state of their own
      In Egypt there is a Sunni Moslem majority facing a large minority of Christians which is dominant in upper Egypt: some 7 million of them, so that even Sadat, in his speech on May 8, expressed the fear that they will want a state of their own, something like a “second” Christian Lebanon in Egypt.

      6- Syria: Shia minority ruling over majority Sunni
      Syria is fundamentally no different from Lebanon except in the strong military regime which rules it. But the real civil war taking place nowadays between the Sunni majority and the Shi’ite Alawi ruling minority (a mere 12% of the population) testifies to the severity of the domestic trouble.

      7- Iraq: Sunni minority ruling over Shia majority – Kurdish minority will make it easy to break it up
      Iraq is, once again, no different in essence from its neighbors, although its majority is Shi’ite and the ruling minority Sunni. Sixty-five percent of the population has no say in politics, in which an elite of 20 percent holds the power. In addition there is a large Kurdish minority in the north, and if it weren’t for the strength of the ruling regime, the army and the oil revenues, Iraq’s future state would be no different than that of Lebanon in the past or of Syria today. The seeds of inner conflict and civil war are apparent today already, especially after the rise of Khomeini to power in Iran, a leader whom the Shi’ites in Iraq view as their natural leader.

      8- Bahrain, UAE, Oman: Sunni minority rules over Shia majority, Kuwait: 75% foreign, Saudi Arabia: 50% foreign
      All the Gulf principalities and Saudi Arabia are built upon a delicate house of sand in which there is only oil. In Kuwait, the Kuwaitis constitute only a quarter of the population. In Bahrain, the Shi’ites are the majority but are deprived of power. In the UAE, Shi’ites are once again the majority but the Sunnis are in power. The same is true of Oman and North Yemen. Even in the Marxist South Yemen there is a sizable Shi’ite minority. In Saudi Arabia half the population is foreign, Egyptian and Yemenite, but a Saudi minority holds power.

      9- Jordan: Palestinian majority ruled by Bedouin minority
      Jordan is in reality Palestinian, ruled by a Trans-Jordanian Bedouin minority, but most of the army and certainly the bureaucracy is now Palestinian. As a matter of fact Amman is as Palestinian as Nablus.

      10- Syrian army is Sunni, commander Shia; Iraqi army is Shia ruled by Sunni
      All of these countries have powerful armies, relatively speaking. But there is a problem there too. The Syrian army today is mostly Sunni with an Alawi officer corps, the Iraqi army Shi’ite with Sunni commanders. This has great significance in the long run, and that is why it will not be possible to retain the loyalty of the army for a long time except where it comes to the only common denominator: The hostility towards Israel, and today even that is insufficient.

      11- Iran is composed of Sunni, Shia Alawis, Sunni Kurds, it faces Ethnic and religious tension,
      Half of Iran’s population is comprised of a Persian speaking group and the other half of an ethnically Turkish group. Turkey’s population comprises a Turkish Sunni Moslem majority, some 50%, and two large minorities, 12 million Shi’ite Alawis and 6 million Sunni Kurds.

      12- Afghanistan: 33% Shia, 67% Sunni
      In Afghanistan there are 5 million Shi’ites who constitute one third of the population.

      13- Pakistan: 15 million Shia (1982 figures)
      In Sunni Pakistan there are 15 million Shi’ites who endanger the existence of that state.

      14- The Muslim world made up of ethnic minorities is like a house of cards
      This national ethnic minority picture extending from Morocco to India and from Somalia to Turkey points to the absence of stability and a rapid degeneration in the entire region. When this picture is added to the economic one, we see how the entire region is built like a house of cards, unable to withstand its severe problems.

      15- Jews should have given Jordan to Palestinians and removed them from Palestine
      We could have saved ourselves all the bitter and dangerous conflict since then if we had given Jordan to the Palestinians who live west of the Jordan river. By doing that we would have neutralized the Palestinian problem which we nowadays face, and to which we have found solutions that are really no solutions at all, such as territorial compromise or autonomy which amount, in fact, to the same thing. Today, we suddenly face immense opportunities for transforming the situation thoroughly and this we must do in the coming decade, otherwise we shall not survive as a state.

      16- Jews should never have lost the Sinai peninsula
      The loss of the Suez Canal oil fields, of the immense potential of the oil, gas and other natural resources in the Sinai peninsula which is geomorphologically identical to the rich oil-producing countries in the region, will result in an energy drain in the near future and will destroy our domestic economy: one quarter of our present GNP as well as one third of the budget is used for the purchase of oil. The search for raw materials in the Negev and on the coast will not, in the near future, serve to alter that state of affairs. (Regaining) the Sinai peninsula with its present and potential resources is therefore a political priority which is obstructed by the Camp David and the peace agreements. The fault for that lies of course with the present Israeli government and the governments which paved the road to the policy of territorial compromise, the Alignment governments since 1967.

      17- Hoping for Egypt to give Israel the excuse to start a war and take back Sinai.
      Israel has two major routes through which to realize this purpose, one direct and the other indirect. The direct option is the less realistic one because of the nature of the regime and government in Israel as well as the wisdom of Sadat who obtained our withdrawal from Sinai, which was, next to the war of 1973, his major achievement since he took power. Israel will not unilaterally break the treaty, neither today, nor in 1982, unless it is very hard pressed economically and politically and Egypt provides Israel with the excuse to take the Sinai back into our hands for the fourth time in our short history. What is left therefore, is the indirect option. The economic situation in Egypt, the nature of the regime and its pan-Arab policy, will bring about a situation after April 1982 in which Israel will be forced to act directly or indirectly in order to regain control over Sinai as a strategic, economic and energy reserve for the long run. Egypt does not constitute a military strategic problem due to its internal conflicts and it could be driven back to the post 1967 war situation in no more than one day.

      18- How to break up Egypt
      Breaking Egypt down territorially into distinct geographical regions is the political aim of Israel in the Nineteen Eighties on its Western front. Egypt is divided and torn apart into many foci of authority. If Egypt falls apart, countries like Libya, Sudan or even the more distant states will not continue to exist in their present form and will join the downfall and dissolution of Egypt. The vision of a Christian Coptic State in Upper Egypt alongside a number of weak states with very localized power and without a centralized government as to date, is the key to a historical development which was only set back by the peace agreement but which seems inevitable in the long run.

      19- Break up Lebanon into five provinces
      Lebanon’s total dissolution into five provinces serves as a precendent for the entire Arab world including Egypt, Syria, Iraq and the Arabian peninsula and is already following that track.

      20- How to break up Syria and Iraq into ethnic and religious components
      The dissolution of Syria and Iraq later on into ethnically or religiously unqiue areas such as in Lebanon, is Israel’s primary target on the Eastern front in the long run, while the dissolution of the military power of those states serves as the primary short term target. Syria will fall apart, in accordance with its ethnic and religious structure, into several states such as in present day Lebanon, so that there will be a Shi’ite Alawi state along its coast, a Sunni state in the Aleppo area, another Sunni state in Damascus hostile to its northern neighbor, and the Druzes who will set up a state, maybe even in our Golan, and certainly in the Hauran and in northern Jordan. This state of affairs will be the guarantee for peace and security in the area in the long run, and that aim is already within our reach today.

      21- How to break up Iraq along ethnic/religious lines
      Iraq, rich in oil on the one hand and internally torn on the other, is guaranteed as a candidate for Israel’s targets. Its dissolution is even more important for us than that of Syria. Iraq is stronger than Syria. In the short run it is Iraqi power which constitutes the greatest threat to Israel. An Iraqi-Iranian war will tear Iraq apart and cause its downfall at home even before it is able to organize a struggle on a wide front against us. Every kind of inter-Arab confrontation will assist us in the short run and will shorten the way to the more important aim of breaking up Iraq into denominations as in Syria and in Lebanon. In Iraq, a division into provinces along ethnic/religious lines as in Syria during Ottoman times is possible. So, three (or more) states will exist around the three major cities: Basra, Baghdad and Mosul, and Shi’ite areas in the south will separate from the Sunni and Kurdish north. It is possible that the present Iranian-Iraqi confrontation will deepen this polarization.

      22- How to break up Saudi Arabia
      The entire Arabian peninsula is a natural candidate for dissolution due to internal and external pressures, and the matter is inevitable especially in Saudi Arabia. Regardless of whether its economic might based on oil remains intact or whether it is diminished in the long run, the internal rifts and breakdowns are a clear and natural development in light of the present political structure.

      23- Transfer power in Jordan from the King to Palestinians
      Jordan constitutes an immediate strategic target in the short run but not in the long run, for it does not constitute a real threat in the long run after its dissolution, the termination of the lengthy rule of King Hussein and the transfer of power to the Palestinians in the short run. There is no chance that Jordan will continue to exist in its present structure for a long time, and Israel’s policy, both in war and in peace, ought to be directed at the liquidation of Jordan under the present regime and the transfer of power to the Palestinian majority.

      24- Change the regime in Jordan and expel Palestinians from Palestine to Jordan
      Changing the regime east of the river will also cause the termination of the problem of the territories densely populated with Arabs west of the Jordan. Whether in war or under conditions of peace, emigration from the territories and economic demographic freeze in them, are the guarantees for the coming change on both banks of the river, and we ought to be active in order to accelerate this process in the nearest future.

      25- Jews must remove all Palestinians and send them to Jordan
      The autonomy plan ought also to be rejected, as well as any compromise or division of the territories for, given the plans of the PLO and those of the Israeli Arabs themselves, the Shefa’amr plan of September 1980, it is not possible to go on living in this country in the present situation without separating the two nations, the Arabs to Jordan and the Jews to the areas west of the river.

      26- Palestinians must understand that Jews must rule over all Palestine-and they need to move to Jordan
      Genuine coexistence and peace will reign over the land only when the Arabs understand that without Jewish rule between the Jordan and the sea they will have neither existence nor security. A nation of their own and security will be theirs only in Jordan.

      27- Palestinians consider all of Palestine stolen irrespective of 1948 or 1967 and Jews consider all of Palestine theirs – even beyond Jordan River
      Within Israel the distinction between the areas of ’67 and the territories beyond them, those of ’48, has always been meaningless for Arabs and nowadays no longer has any significance for us. The problem should be seen in its entirety without any divisions as of ’67. It should be clear, under any future political situation or military constellation, that the solution of the problem of the indigenous Arabs will come only when they recognize the existence of Israel in secure borders up to the Jordan river and beyond it, as our existential need in this difficult epoch, the nuclear epoch which we shall soon enter.

      28- The West Bank must be populated with Jews or else Jews will be defeated like crusaders.
      Dispersal of the population is therefore a domestic strategic aim of the highest order; otherwise, we shall cease to exist within any borders. Judea, Samaria and the Galilee are our sole guarantee for national existence, and if we do not become the majority in the mountain areas, we shall not rule in the country and we shall be like the Crusaders, who lost this country which was not theirs anyhow, and in which they were foreigners to begin with. Rebalancing the country demographically, strategically and economically is the highest and most central aim today. Taking hold of the mountain watershed from Beersheba to the Upper Galilee is the national aim generated by the major strategic consideration which is settling the mountainous part of the country that is empty of Jews today.

      29- No force can remove the Jews from Palestine
      Our existence in this country itself is certain, and there is no force that could remove us from here either forcefully or by treachery (Sadat’s method). Despite the difficulties of the mistaken “peace” policy and the problem of the Israeli Arabs and those of the territories, we can effectively deal with these problems in the foreseeable future.

      • peepsqueek

        Right or wrong, it is a good read, which makes you want to learn more. You leave out too much of the history prior to the tiny Jewish State of Israel. The Islamic civilization peaked between the 8th and the 15th century. Three factors accounted for its sudden glory: They created one of the first globalized economies, extending from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean; They unified ancient civilizations that had never been unified before (Roman, Greek, Egyptian, Persian, Jewish and Hindu); and Muslims were a tiny minority of their own empire (even many of the administrative posts were held by non-Muslims).

        The fall of the Islamic Empire began in the 16th-17th centuries: 1. The Islamic trade region disintegrated into warring states, the Europeans bypassed Islamic lands by sea and new resources were coming from the New World (the Americas). 2. The Greek-Persian-Jewish influence had been replaced by the civilization of the new rulers, the Turkic people who came from Central Asia until WWI; 3. And last, Muslims became the majority in their own so called Islamic land.

        Probably he most successful Muslim operation of the last few hundred years has been the ethnic cleansing and removal of millions of Christians, Jews, Hindus and Buddhists from the so-called Islamic world. Just for balance, we know for a fact that for a long time more and more Christians are asking for asylum in Western Countries, coming from Islamic Countries. How many Muslims are coming from Western Countries or from Israel, asking for asylum in Muslim Countries? Followup question- How many Muslims have left Western Countries or Israel to ask for asylum in a Muslim Country?

        • Helen4Yemen

          WHY IS THIS WHITE MAN ON ARAB LAND? At 0% ancestry ties to Palestine but at 99.9% ancestry to Europe, what is the Ashkenazi doing on Arab land? Does DNA lie? I thought Hitler had been dead for decades? Why not go home to where your 99.9% of your DNA is from: EUROPE?

          Tony Kushner DNA
          97.5% Ashkenazi
          0.1% Finnish
          0.1% Scandanvian
          2.2% Broadly European
          0.1% East Asian
          99.9% European
          0.0% Middle Eastern

          Rabbi Hammerman DNA
          97.2% Ashkenazi
          0.8% East European
          0.2% Southern European
          1.7% Broadly European
          0.1% Native American
          99.9% European
          0.0% Middle Eastern

          Joseph Cohen DNA
          96.2% Ashkenazi
          0.4% Eastern European
          0.1% N. European
          0.1% SouthernEuropean
          3.0% Broady European
          0.1% East Asian
          0.1% Unassigned
          0.0% Middle East
          99.8% European
          0.0% Middle Eastern

          Alan Dershowitz DNA
          98. 5% Ashkenazi
          0.4% Southern European
          0.1% Balkan
          0.9% Broadly European
          0.1% East Asian
          99.9% European
          0.0% Middle Eastern

          • peepsqueek

            Mizrahi Jews, Bene HaMizrah (“Sons of the East”) or Oriental Jews, are Jews descended from local Jewish communities of the Middle East from biblical times into the modern era. They include descendants of Babylonian Jews and Mountain Jews from modern Iraq, Syria, Bahrain, Kuwait, Dagestan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Uzbekistan, the Caucasus, Kurdistan, Afghanistan, India and Pakistan. Yemeni Jews are sometimes also included, but their history is separate from Babylonian Jewry. Why do the vast majority of Mizrahi Jews, 3,200,000, live in Israel today as citizens? Is that OK with you?

          • Helen4Yemen

            What are “Babylonian Jews “?

            Are you referring to where Abraham came from in Ur, Iraq?

            I thought the people of Ur were pagans or did they convert

            and if so when did they convert? Who converted them?

          • peepsqueek

            Nice dodge to some simple questions? I don’t care who was religious, not religious, agnostic, etc. They were a people who evolved like every other people in human history.

          • Helen4Yemen

            Isn’t it because of religion we have the word “Jew”? Are you now saying the Ashkenazi came out of the Middle East? Are you then going to say that their Ur (Iraq) DNA evaporated down to 0%? Why does their DNA show them to be the purest of the pure Europeans at 99.9% European? Does DNA lie?

            Tony Kushner DNA
            97.5% Ashkenazi
            0.1% Finnish
            0.1% Scandinavian
            2.2% Broadly European
            0.1% East Asian
            99.9% European
            0.0% Middle Eastern

            Rabbi Hammerman DNA
            97.2% Ashkenazi
            0.8% East European
            0.2% Southern European
            1.7% Broadly European
            0.1% Native American
            99.9% European
            0.0% Middle Eastern

            Joseph Cohen DNA
            96.2% Ashkenazi
            0.4% Eastern European
            0.1% N. European
            0.1% Southern European
            3.0% Broadly European
            0.1% East Asian
            0.1% Unassigned
            0.0% Middle East
            99.8% European
            0.0% Middle Eastern

            Alan Dershowitz DNA
            98. 5% Ashkenazi
            0.4% Southern European
            0.1% Balkan
            0.9% Broadly European
            0.1% East Asian
            99.9% European
            0.0% Middle Eastern

          • peepsqueek

            Where do Europeans come from? At least three places, suggests new genetic research published this week in the journal Nature.

            Until now, most researchers believed that modern Europeans were a blend of two populations: European hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers who came from the Near East. Scientists largely agreed that some migration from the Near East to Europe took place, and that these migrants from places like present-day Turkey or Syria helped bring agriculture to Europe.

          • Helen4Yemen

            THE GAME IS OVER – DNA IS HERE. EXPLAIN WHY THE DNA OF THE ASHKENAZI SHOWS NOT A TRACE OF ME ANCESTRY – NOTHING – ZERO – ZILCH!

          • peepsqueek

            @ Helen, I tried posting this whole study and the Website yesterday, and it was removed twice. This is as much of the article that they will allow me to post. But it does not change the course of history one way or the other, as we are all very mixed to some degree. It is the ideology of collective people and cultural dynamics that cause the biggest changes in history, not color or regional origin. Your claim is incorrect, and this article may help you and redirect you to many other articles and studies. Of course you will not read the whole study because it is easier to call everything you do not agree with a “fraud”

            National Academy of Sciences 2000

            Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes

            M. F. Hammer,*†‡ A. J. Redd,*† E. T. Wood,*† M. R. Bonner,* H. Jarjanazi,* T. Karafet,* S. Santachiara-Benerecetti,¶ A. Oppenheim,‖ M. A. Jobling,** T. Jenkins,‡‡ H. Ostrer,†† and B. Bonné-Tamir§

            Author information ► Article notes ► Copyright and License information ►

            This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

            Go to:

            ABSTRACT

            Haplotypes constructed from Y-chromosome markers were used to trace the paternal origins of the Jewish Diaspora. A set of 18 biallelic polymorphisms was genotyped in 1,371 males from 29 populations, including 7 Jewish (Ashkenazi, Roman, North African, Kurdish, Near Eastern, Yemenite, and Ethiopian) and 16 non-Jewish groups from similar geographic locations. The Jewish populations were characterized by a diverse set of 13 haplotypes that were also present in non-Jewish populations from Africa, Asia, and Europe. A series of analyses was performed to address whether modern Jewish Y-chromosome diversity derives mainly from a common Middle Eastern source population or from admixture with neighboring non-Jewish populations during and after the Diaspora. Despite their long-term residence in different countries and isolation from one another, most Jewish populations were not significantly different from one another at the genetic level. Admixture estimates suggested low levels of European Y-chromosome gene flow into Ashkenazi and Roman Jewish communities. A multidimensional scaling plot placed six of the seven Jewish populations in a relatively tight cluster that was interspersed with Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations, including Palestinians and Syrians. Pairwise differentiation tests further indicated that these Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations were not statistically different. The results support the hypothesis that the paternal gene pools of Jewish communities from Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East descended from a common Middle Eastern ancestral population, and suggest that most Jewish communities have remained relatively isolated from neighboring non-Jewish communities during and after the Diaspora.

            Jewish religion and culture can be traced back to Semitic tribes that lived in the Middle East approximately 4,000 years ago. The Babylonian exile in 586 B.C. marked the beginning of major dispersals of Jewish populations from the Middle East and the development of various Jewish communities outside of present-day Israel (1). Today, Jews belong to several communities that can be classified according to the location where each community developed. Among others, these include the Middle Eastern communities of former Babylonia and Palestine, the Jewish communities of North Africa and the Mediterranean Basin, and Ashkenazi communities of central and eastern Europe. The history of the Jewish Diaspora—the numerous migrations of Jewish populations and their subsequent residence in various countries in Europe, North Africa, and West Asia—has resulted in a complex set of genetic relationships among Jewish populations and their non-Jewish neighbors. Several studies have attempted to describe these genetic relationships and to unravel the numerous evolutionary factors that have come into play during the Diaspora (2–11). Some of the key arguments in the literature concern the relative contributions of common ancestry, genetic drift, natural selection, and admixture leading to the observed similarities and differences among Jewish and non-Jewish communities.

            Given the complex history of migration, can Jews be traced to a single Middle Eastern ancestry, or are present-day Jewish communities more closely related to non-Jewish populations from the same geographic area? Some genetic studies suggest that Jewish populations show substantial non-Jewish admixture and the occurrence of mass conversion of non-Jews to Judaism (2, 3, 10, 12). In contrast, other research points to considerably greater genetic similarity among Jewish communities with only slight gene flow from their respective host populations (5, 7, 9, 11, 13). Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the degree of genetic similarity among Jewish communities and between Jewish and non-Jewish populations depends on the particular locus that is being investigated (4, 8, 11). This observation raises the possibility that variation associated with a given locus has been influenced by natural selection.

            All of the aforementioned investigations used “classical” genetic markers such as blood groups, enzymes, and serum proteins, as well as immunoglobulins and the HLA system. More recently, restriction fragment length polymorphism studies were initiated by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY), and other nuclear loci (14–20). An advantage of nucleotide-level studies is that they circumvent some of the complications associated with selection; however, these studies have not fully resolved many of the key issues in the earlier literature.

            Analyses of mtDNA and the NRY are especially relevant to studies of Jewish origins because, according to ancient Jewish law, Jewish religious affiliation is assigned maternally (1). In particular, studies of paternally inherited variation provide the opportunity to assess the genetic contribution of non-Jewish males to present-day Jewish genetic diversity. This research represents one of the first comparisons of biallelic variation on the NRY in Jewish and non-Jewish populations from similar geographic areas. We surveyed 18 biallelic polymorphisms in 7 Jewish and 22 non-Jewish populations from Europe, the Middle East, and Africa to assess the relative contributions of common ancestry, gene flow, and genetic drift in shaping patterns of NRY variation in populations of the Jewish Diaspora.

            Go to:

            SUBJECTS AND METHODS

            DNA Samples.

            We analyzed a total of 1,371 males from 29 populations. These populations were categorized into five major divisions based on a combination of geographic, religious, linguistic, and ethnohistorical criteria: Jews, Middle Eastern non-Jews, Europeans, North Africans, and sub-Saharan Africans (Table ​(Table1).1). The Jewish samples included 115 Ashkenazim (Ash), 44 Roman Jews (Rom) (21), 45 North African Jews (Naf) (25 Moroccans, 15 Libyans, 1 Tunisian, 1 Algerian, and 3 from unspecified North African countries), 32 Near Eastern Jews (Nea) (18 Iraqis and 14 Iranians), 50 Kurdish Jews (Kur) (22), 30 Yemenite Jews (Yem) (23), and 20 Ethiopian Jews (EtJ) (23). The non-Jewish Middle Eastern samples included 73 Palestinians (Pal), 91 Syrians (Syr), 23 Lebanese (Leb), 21 Israeli Druze (Dru), and 21 Saudi Arabians (Sar). The remaining sample composition was as follows: Europeans: 31 Russians (Rus), 44 British (Bri), 33 Germans (Ger), 40 Austrians (Aus), 81 Italians (Ita), 23 Spanish (Spa), 85 Greeks (Gre); North Africans: 31 Tunisians (Tun), 58 Egyptians (Egy), 48 Ethiopians (Eth); sub-Saharan Africans: 49 Gambians (Gam), 31 Biaka (Bia), 26 Bagandans (Bag), 63 San (San), and 30 Zulu (Zul). We also analyzed a sample of 98 Turks (Tur) and 34 unrelated males from the Lemba (Lem), a Bantu (Venda)-speaking population from southern Africa who claim Jewish paternal ancestry (24). All sampling protocols were approved by the Human Subjects Committee at the University of Arizona.

          • Helen4Yemen

            SHLOMO SAND INTERVIEW: SHATTERING A NATIONAL MYTHOLOGY

            Ha’aretz: By Ofri Ilani

            26-Mar-2008

            Of all the national heroes who have arisen from among the Jewish people over the generations, fate has not been kind to Dahia al-Kahina, a leader of the Berbers in the Aures Mountains. Although she was a proud Jewess, few Israelis have ever heard the name of this warrior-queen who, in the seventh century C.E., united a number of Berber tribes and pushed back the Muslim army that invaded North Africa. It is possible that the reason for this is that al-Kahina was the daughter of a Berber tribe that had converted to Judaism, apparently several generations before she was born, sometime around the 6th century C.E.

            According to the Tel Aviv University historian, Prof. Shlomo Sand, author of “Matai ve’ech humtza ha’am hayehudi?” (“When and How the Jewish People Was Invented?”; Resling, in Hebrew), the queen’s tribe and other local tribes that converted to Judaism are the main sources from which Spanish Jewry sprang. This claim that the Jews of North Africa originated in indigenous tribes that became Jewish – and not in communities exiled from Jerusalem – is just one element of the far- reaching argument set forth in Sand’s new book.

            In this work, the author attempts to prove that the Jews now living in Israel and other places in the world are not at all descendants of the ancient people who inhabited the Kingdom of Judea during the First and Second Temple period. Their origins, according to him, are in varied peoples that converted to Judaism during the course of history, in different corners of the Mediterranean Basin and the adjacent regions. Not only are the North African Jews for the most part descendants of pagans who converted to Judaism, but so are the Jews of Yemen (remnants of the Himyar Kingdom in the Arab Peninsula, who converted to Judaism in the fourth century) and the Ashkenazi Jews of Eastern Europe (refugees from the Kingdom of the Khazars, who converted in the eighth century).

            Unlike other “new historians” who have tried to undermine the assumptions of Zionist historiography, Sand does not content himself with going back to 1948 or to the beginnings of Zionism, but rather goes back thousands of years. He tries to prove that the Jewish people never existed as a “nation-race” with a common origin, but rather is a colorful mix of groups that at various stages in history adopted the Jewish religion. He argues that for a number of Zionist ideologues, the mythical perception of the Jews as an ancient people led to truly racist thinking: “There were times when if anyone argued that the Jews belong to a people that has gentile origins, he would be classified as an anti-Semite on the spot. Today, if anyone dares to suggest that those who are considered Jews in the world … have never constituted and still do not constitute a people or a nation – he is immediately condemned as a hater of Israel.”

            According to Sand, the description of the Jews as a wandering and self-isolating nation of exiles, “who wandered across seas and continents, reached the ends of the earth and finally, with the advent of Zionism, made a U-turn and returned en masse to their orphaned homeland,” is nothing but “national mythology.” Like other national movements in Europe, which sought out a splendid Golden Age, through which they invented a heroic past – for example, classical Greece or the Teutonic tribes – to prove they have existed since the beginnings of history, “so, too, the first buds of Jewish nationalism blossomed in the direction of the strong light that has its source in the mythical Kingdom of David.”

            So when, in fact, was the Jewish people invented, in Sand’s view? At a certain stage in the 19th century, intellectuals of Jewish origin in Germany, influenced by the folk character of German nationalism, took upon themselves the task of inventing a people “retrospectively,” out of a thirst to create a modern Jewish people. From historian Heinrich Graetz on, Jewish historians began to draw the history of Judaism as the history of a nation that had been a kingdom, became a wandering people and ultimately turned around and went back to its birthplace.

            Actually, most of your book does not deal with the invention of the Jewish people by modern Jewish nationalism, but rather with the question of where the Jews come from.

            Sand: “My initial intention was to take certain kinds of modern historiographic materials and examine how they invented the ‘figment’ of the Jewish people. But when I began to confront the historiographic sources, I suddenly found contradictions. And then that urged me on: I started to work, without knowing where I would end up. I took primary sources and I tried to examine authors’ references in the ancient period – what they wrote about conversion.”

            Sand, an expert on 20th-century history, has until now researched the intellectual history of modern France (in “Ha’intelektual, ha’emet vehakoah: miparashat dreyfus ve’ad milhemet hamifrats” – “Intellectuals, Truth and Power, From the Dreyfus Affair to the Gulf War”; Am Oved, in Hebrew). Unusually, for a professional historian, in his new book he deals with periods that he had never researched before, usually relying on studies that present unorthodox views of the origins of the Jews.

            Experts on the history of the Jewish people say you are dealing with subjects about which you have no understanding and are basing yourself on works that you can’t read in the original.

            “It is true that I am an historian of France and Europe, and not of the ancient period. I knew that the moment I would start dealing with early periods like these, I would be exposed to scathing criticism by historians who specialize in those areas. But I said to myself that I can’t stay just with modern historiographic material without examining the facts it describes. Had I not done this myself, it would have been necessary to have waited for an entire generation. Had I continued to deal with France, perhaps I would have been given chairs at the university and provincial glory. But I decided to relinquish the glory.”

            Inventing the Diaspora

            “After being forcibly exiled from their land, the people remained faithful to it throughout their Dispersion and never ceased to pray and hope for their return to it and for the restoration in it of their political freedom” – thus states the preamble to the Israeli Declaration of Independence. This is also the quotation that opens the third chapter of Sand’s book, entitled “The Invention of the Diaspora.” Sand argues that the Jewish people’s exile from its land never happened.

            “The supreme paradigm of exile was needed in order to construct a long-range memory in which an imagined and exiled nation-race was posited as the direct continuation of ‘the people of the Bible’ that preceded it,” Sand explains. Under the influence of other historians who have dealt with the same issue in recent years, he argues that the exile of the Jewish people is originally a Christian myth that depicted that event as divine punishment imposed on the Jews for having rejected the Christian gospel.

            “I started looking in research studies about the exile from the land – a constitutive event in Jewish history, almost like the Holocaust. But to my astonishment I discovered that it has no literature. The reason is that no one exiled the people of the country. The Romans did not exile peoples and they could not have done so even if they had wanted to. They did not have trains and trucks to deport entire populations. That kind of logistics did not exist until the 20th century. From this, in effect, the whole book was born: in the realization that Judaic society was not dispersed and was not exiled.”

            If the people was not exiled, are you saying that in fact the real descendants of the inhabitants of the Kingdom of Judah are the Palestinians?

            “No population remains pure over a period of thousands of years. But the chances that the Palestinians are descendants of the ancient Judaic people are much greater than the chances that you or I are its descendents. The first Zionists, up until the Arab Revolt [1936-9], knew that there had been no exiling, and that the Palestinians were descended from the inhabitants of the land. They knew that farmers don’t leave until they are expelled. Even Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, the second president of the State of Israel, wrote in 1929 that, ‘the vast majority of the peasant farmers do not have their origins in the Arab conquerors, but rather, before then, in the Jewish farmers who were numerous and a majority in the building of the land.’”

            And how did millions of Jews appear around the Mediterranean Sea?

            “The people did not spread, but the Jewish religion spread. Judaism was a converting religion. Contrary to popular opinion, in early Judaism there was a great thirst to convert others. The Hasmoneans were the first to begin to produce large numbers of Jews through mass conversion, under the influence of Hellenism. The conversions between the Hasmonean Revolt and Bar Kochba’s rebellion are what prepared the ground for the subsequent, wide-spread dissemination of Christianity. After the victory of Christianity in the fourth century, the momentum of conversion was stopped in the Christian world, and there was a steep drop in the number of Jews. Presumably many of the Jews who appeared around the Mediterranean became Christians. But then Judaism started to permeate other regions – pagan regions, for example, such as Yemen and North Africa. Had Judaism not continued to advance at that stage and had it not continued to convert people in the pagan world, we would have remained a completely marginal religion, if we survived at all.”

            How did you come to the conclusion that the Jews of North Africa were originally Berbers who converted?

            “I asked myself how such large Jewish communities appeared in Spain. And then I saw that Tariq ibn Ziyad, the supreme commander of the Muslims who conquered Spain, was a Berber, and most of his soldiers were Berbers. Dahia al-Kahina’s Jewish Berber kingdom had been defeated only 15 years earlier. And the truth is there are a number of Christian sources that say many of the conquerors of Spain were Jewish converts. The deep-rooted source of the large Jewish community in Spain was those Berber soldiers who converted to Judaism.”

            Sand argues that the most crucial demographic addition to the Jewish population of the world came in the wake of the conversion of the kingdom of Khazaria – a huge empire that arose in the Middle Ages on the steppes along the Volga River, which at its height ruled over an area that stretched from the Georgia of today to Kiev. In the eighth century, the kings of the Khazars adopted the Jewish religion and made Hebrew the written language of the kingdom. From the 10th century the kingdom weakened; in the 13th century is was utterly defeated by Mongol invaders, and the fate of its Jewish inhabitants remains unclear.

            Sand revives the hypothesis, which was already suggested by historians in the 19th and 20th centuries, according to which the Judaized Khazars constituted the main origins of the Jewish communities in Eastern Europe.

            “At the beginning of the 20th century there is a tremendous concentration of Jews in Eastern Europe – three million Jews in Poland alone,” he says. “The Zionist historiography claims that their origins are in the earlier Jewish community in Germany, but they do not succeed in explaining how a small number of Jews who came from Mainz and Worms could have founded the Yiddish people of Eastern Europe. The Jews of Eastern Europe are a mixture of Khazars and Slavs who were pushed eastward.”

            ‘Degree of perversion’

            If the Jews of Eastern Europe did not come from Germany, why did they speak Yiddish, which is a Germanic language?

            “The Jews were a class of people dependent on the German bourgeoisie in the East, and thus they adopted German words. Here I base myself on the research of linguist Paul Wechsler of Tel Aviv University, who has demonstrated that there is no etymological connection between the German Jewish language of the Middle Ages and Yiddish. As far back as 1828, the Ribal (Rabbi Isaac Ber Levinson) said that the ancient language of the Jews was not Yiddish. Even Ben Zion Dinur, the father of Israeli historiography, was not hesitant about describing the Khazars as the origin of the Jews in Eastern Europe, and describes Khazaria as ‘the mother of the diasporas’ in Eastern Europe. But more or less since 1967, anyone who talks about the Khazars as the ancestors of the Jews of Eastern Europe is considered naive and moonstruck.”

            Why do you think the idea of the Khazar origins is so threatening?

            “It is clear that the fear is of an undermining of the historic right to the land. The revelation that the Jews are not from Judea would ostensibly knock the legitimacy for our being here out from under us. Since the beginning of the period of decolonization, settlers have no longer been able to say simply: ‘We came, we won and now we are here’ the way the Americans, the whites in South Africa and the Australians said. There is a very deep fear that doubt will be cast on our right to exist.”

            Is there no justification for this fear?

            “No. I don’t think that the historical myth of the exile and the wanderings is the source of the legitimization for me being here, and therefore I don’t mind believing that I am Khazar in my origins. I am not afraid of the undermining of our existence, because I think that the character of the State of Israel undermines it in a much more serious way. What would constitute the basis for our existence here is not mythological historical right, but rather would be for us to start to establish an open society here of all Israeli citizens.”

            In effect you are saying that there is no such thing as a Jewish people.

            “I don’t recognize an international people. I recognize ‘the Yiddish people’ that existed in Eastern Europe, which though it is not a nation can be seen as a Yiddishist civilization with a modern popular culture. I think that Jewish nationalism grew up in the context of this ‘Yiddish people.’ I also recognize the existence of an Israeli people, and do not deny its right to sovereignty. But Zionism and also Arab nationalism over the years are not prepared to recognize it.

            “From the perspective of Zionism, this country does not belong to its citizens, but rather to the Jewish people. I recognize one definition of a nation: a group of people that wants to live in sovereignty over itself. But most of the Jews in the world have no desire to live in the State of Israel, even though nothing is preventing them from doing so. Therefore, they cannot be seen as a nation.”

            What is so dangerous about Jews imagining that they belong to one people? Why is this bad?

            “In the Israeli discourse about roots there is a degree of perversion. This is an ethnocentric, biological, genetic discourse. But Israel has no existence as a Jewish state: If Israel does not develop and become an open, multicultural society we will have a Kosovo in the Galilee. The consciousness concerning the right to this place must be more flexible and varied, and if I have contributed with my book to the likelihood that I and my children will be able to live with the others here in this country in a more egalitarian situation – I will have done my bit.

            “We must begin to work hard to transform our place into an Israeli republic where ethnic origin, as well as faith, will not be relevant in the eyes of the law. Anyone who is acquainted with the young elites of the Israeli Arab community can see that they will not agree to live in a country that declares it is not theirs. If I were a Palestinian I would rebel against a state like that, but even as an Israeli I am rebelling against it.”

            The question is whether for those conclusions you had to go as far as the Kingdom of the Khazars.

            “I am not hiding the fact that it is very distressing for me to live in a society in which the nationalist principles that guide it are dangerous, and that this distress has served as a motive in my work. I am a citizen of this country, but I am also a historian and as a historian it is my duty to write history and examine texts. This is what I have done.”

            If the myth of Zionism is one of the Jewish people that returned to its land from exile, what will be the myth of the country you envision?

            “To my mind, a myth about the future is better than introverted mythologies of the past. For the Americans, and today for the Europeans as well, what justifies the existence of the nation is a future promise of an open, progressive and prosperous society. The Israeli materials do exist, but it is necessary to add, for example, pan-Israeli holidays. To decrease the number of memorial days a bit and to add days that are dedicated to the future. But also, for example, to add an hour in memory of the Nakba [literally, the “catastrophe” – the Palestinian term for what happened when Israel was established], between Memorial Day and Independence Day.”

          • Helen4Yemen

            1 Shlomo Sand: “It is clear that the fear is of an undermining of the historic right to the land. The revelation that the Jews are not from Judea would ostensibly knock the legitimacy for our being here out from under us. Since the beginning of the period of de colonization, settlers have no longer been able to say simply: ‘We came, we won and now we are here’ the way the Americans, the whites in South Africa and the Australians said. There is a very deep fear that doubt will be cast on our right to exist.”– Shlomo Sand interviewed by Haaretz Why do you think the idea of the Khazar origins is so threatening?”

            2 Shlomo Sand: “Any mention of the Khazars in the public arena in Israel came to be tagged as eccentric, freakish, and even menacing…There was anxiety about the legitimacy of the Zionist project, should it become widely known that the settling Jewish masses were not the direct descendents of the “Children of Israel”- such de-legitimization might lead to a broad challenge against the State of Israel’s right to exist.”

            3 Arthur Koestler: “The large majority of surviving Jews in the world is of Eastern European-and thus perhaps mainly of Khazar origin. If so this would mean that their ancestors came not from the Jordan but from the Volga, not from Canaan but from the Caucasus, once believed to be the cradle of the Aryan race; and that genetically they are more closely related to the Hun, Uigur, and Magyar tribes than to the seed of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Should this turn out to be the case then the term “anti-Semitism” would become void of meaning, based on a misapprehension shared by both the killers and their victims.”

            4 Ralph Schoenman: “Mr. Benjamin Natanayahu is descendant from people who have no relation to Palestine, historic or otherwise, because Ashkenazim or European Jews such as Mr. Natanyahu or ourselves for that matter are in fact descendants of the Khazars, an 8th and 9th century empire that converted to Judaism at that time from which European Jews are descended. Indeed, as I have often discussed, if one wanted scientific data which demonstrates the ethnic origin of European Jewry. Here is the point: European Jews are susceptible to a genetic condition known Tay-Sachs disease, it is analogous to what African Americans suffer, sickle cell anemia. What is interesting about this is that only European Jews are susceptible to this genetic trait. No Semitic people is. That means none of the Jews form the Arab East, Yemen or Iraq or North Africa or any of the areas of the region, because like their Arab brothers and sisters as are the Arab Jews.”

          • Helen4Yemen

            Neil Gaiman posted his DNA results on his Twitter account.
            Do you doubt any of it?

            Ashkenazi = 99.6%
            Unspecified = 0.3%
            East Asian = 0.1%

            That is stunning! Few people in the world today are as pure as the Ashkenazi except for Finland. The average Ashkenazi scores 96% Ashkenazi DNA. Compare that to Italians who are only 72% on average Italian and Scandinavians 84% Scandinavian. The only people who more pure European than the Ashkenazi are the people of Finland at 99%.

            Why is it that you dump junk science but you HAVE NEVER POSTED EVEN 1 ACTUAL DNA REPORT FOR THE ASHKENAZI? The answer is simply because finding an Ashkenazi with even 1% Middle East DNA is like looking for chicken with teeth. There are none –or else prove me wrong and post one.

            The link below is a DNA report for Harry Katz, a priestly group “descended from Aaron”, right? What is his DNA result like? It matches the results of all the Ashkenazi at 99%European and 0% Middle Eastern.

            (Replace * with dot)
            https://www*ancestry*com/dna/ethnicity/E59C79DB-8EFC-4051-9878-5E78B6DFE86D/share/e3f7a96f-3e0f-4aa2-8b42-6a50874ce6f8/9cc5e907-5c6c-4572-95f2-1992625918dc

            https://twitter*com/neilhimself/status/278035051210498048

          • Helen4Yemen

            DO YOU REALIZE THAT ALL THE DNA FIRMS HAVE A SPECIAL
            DNA GROUP FOR THE ASHKENAZI UNDER EUROPE?

            23ANDME – EUROPEAN

            Northwestern European
            a) British & Irish
            b) Finnish
            c) French & German
            d) Scandinavian
            Southern European
            a) Balkan
            b) Iberian
            c) Italian
            d) Sardinian
            Eastern European
            Ashkenazi

            ANCESTRY.COM – EUROPEAN

            Europe East
            Europe West
            European Jewish
            Finland-Northwestern Russia
            Great Britain
            Iberian Peninsula
            Ireland
            Italy-Greece
            Scandinavia

            FAMILYTREEDNA – EUROPEAN

            Western and Central Europe
            Eastern Europe
            Southern Europe
            British Isles
            Finland and Northern Siberia
            Scandinavia
            Ashkenazi

          • Helen4Yemen

            HARRY KATZ: WE THE ASHKENAZI ARE TOTALLY EUROPEAN

            “But I see no genetic evidence for our (Askenazic) roots in the Middle East, and I disagree with you that there are major similarities between the DNA of the Ashkenazim and Sepharadim. The origin of the Ashkenazim is not resolved at all. All I know is that it is a very isolated, restricted gene pool with little evidence of DNA infusions from other Europeans. The Ashkenazim are not a hybrid group, but the purest “white European group outside of Scandinavia, perhaps.”

            Harry Katz’s actual DNA report (99% European, 0% Middle Eastern)

            https://www*ancestry*com/dna/ethnicity/E59C79DB-8EFC-4051-9878-5E78B6DFE86D/share/e3f7a96f-3e0f-4aa2-8b42-6a50874ce6f8/9cc5e907-5c6c-4572-95f2-1992625918dc

            (replace * with dot)

          • Helen4Yemen

            “Given the complex history of migration, can Jews be traced to a single Middle Eastern ancestry, or are present-day Jewish communities more closely related to non-Jewish populations from the same geographic area?”
            …………
            DING DONG! DING DONG! Are you trying to tell me that the Ethiopian Jews whom the white Jews despise can trace their ancestry to Abraham of Ur, Iraq? You did run away when I asked you to tell what information you had on the ‘diaspora’? Shall we try it again?

            a) How many “Israelite” left?
            b) How did they travel? (mode of transportation)?
            c) What was the male/female ratio of those who traveled?
            d) What percentage stayed behind?
            e) Did any babies, old people, young kids travel?
            f) What was their first destination?
            f) What was the point of departure?
            h) How long did it take them from departure to destination?

          • Helen4Yemen

            Shlomo Sand, Jewish author of :The Invention of the Jewish People

            __ “As an Israeli citizen, as a historian – I can tell you that 10 years ago I believed that Judean society was exiled by the Romans. Discovering that it’s a myth, it was shocking for me.”

          • Jack

            “THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS THE PALESTINIAN PEOPLE. IT IS JUST AN ARAB TACTIC FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF ISRAEL!”

            PLO executive committee member Zahir Muhsein
            “The Palestinian people does not exist. The creation of a
            Palestinian state is only a means for continuing our struggle
            against the state of Israel for our Arab unity. In reality
            today there is no difference between Jordanians,
            Palestinians, Syrians and Lebanese. Only for political and
            tactical reasons do we speak today about the existence of
            a Palestinian people, since Arab national interests demand
            that we posit the existence of a distinct ‘Palestinian
            people’ to oppose Zionism.
            “For tactical reasons, Jordan, which is a sovereign state
            with defined borders, cannot raise claims to Haifa and Jaffa.
            While as a Palestinian, I can undoubtedly demand Haifa,
            Jaffa, Beer-Sheva and Jerusalem. However, the moment we
            reclaim our right to all of Palestine, we will not wait even
            a minute to unite Palestine and Jordan.” .

            DING DONG! DING DONG!

          • Helen4Yemen

            THE EXODUS: DOES ARCHAEOLOGY HAVE A SAY?
            BY STEPHEN GABRIEL ROSENBERG APRIL 14, 2014

            The Exodus is so fundamental to us and our Jewish sources that it is embarrassing that there is no evidence outside of the Bible to support it.

            The short answer is “no.” The whole subject of the Exodus is embarrassing to archaeologists. The Exodus is so fundamental to us and our Jewish sources that it is embarrassing that there is no evidence outside of the Bible to support it. So we prefer not to talk about it, and hate to be asked about it.

            For the account in the Torah is the basis of our people’s creation, it is the basis of our existence and it is the basis of our important Passover festival and the whole Haggada that we recite on the first evening of this festival of freedom. So that makes archaeologists reluctant to have to tell our brethren and ourselves that there is nothing in Egyptian records to support it. Nothing on the slavery of the Israelites, nothing on the plagues that persuaded Pharaoh to let them go, nothing on the miraculous crossing of the Red Sea, nothing.

            Nothing at all. There are three Pharaohs who said they got rid of the hated foreigners, but nothing to say who the foreigners were, and no Pharaoh is named as having persecuted foreign slaves or suffered unspeakable plagues.

          • Helen4Yemen

            “38 Ashkenazi Jewish Genetic Diseases. Only the Ashkenazi have these genetic diseases and no Arab Jews. The Ashkenazi have zero genetic relation with Arab Jews. The numbers within parenthesis are the carrier rates for the Ashkenazi.”

            1 Bloom Syndrome ( 1/134 )
            2 Canavan Disease ( 1/55 )
            3 Cystic Fibrosis ( 1/24 )
            4 Familial Dysautonomia ( 1/31 )
            5 Familial Hyperinsulinism ( 1/68 )
            6 Fanconi Anemia C ( 1/100 )
            7 Gaucher Disease ( 1/15 )
            8 Glycogen Storage Disease 1A ( 1/64 )
            9 Joubert Syndrome 2 ( 1/110 )
            10 Lipoamide Dehydrogenase Deficiency (E3) ( 1/107 )
            11 Maple Syrup Urine Disease 1B ( 1/97 )
            12 Mucolipidosis IV ( 1/89 )
            13 Nemaline Myopathy ( 1/168 )
            14 Niemann-Pick Disease ( 1/115 )
            15 Spinal Muscular Atrophy ( 1/41 )
            16 Tay-Sachs Disease ( 1/27 )
            17 Usher IF ( 1/147 )
            18 Usher III ( 1/120 )
            19 Walker Warburg ( 1/120 )
            20 3-Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase Deficiency ( 1/280 )
            21 Abetalipoproteinemia ( 1/180 )
            22 Alport Syndrome, Autosomal Recessive ( 1/188 )
            23 Arthrogryposis, Mental Retardation and Seizures ( 1/373 )
            24 Bardet-Biedl Syndrome ( 1/107 )
            25 Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase ll Deficiency ( 1/51 )
            26 Congenital Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia ( 1/55 )
            27 Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation la ( 1/57 )
            28 Dyskeratosis Congenita, Autosomal Recessive ( 1/203 )
            29 Ehlers-Danlos VllC ( 1/248 )
            30 Fragile X Syndrome ( 1/115 )
            31 Galactosemia ( 1/172 )
            32 Multiple Sulphatase Deficiency ( 1/320 )
            33 Polycystic Kidney Disease, Autosomal Recessive ( 1/107 )
            34 Retinitis Pigmentosa 59 ( 1/118 )
            35 Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome ( 1/36 )
            36 Tyrosinemia l ( 1/150 )
            37 Wilson Disease ( 1/70 )
            38 Zellweger Syndrome ( 1/172 )

          • Helen4Yemen

            THE ARAB JEWS DO NOT HAVE ANY OF THE 40+ GENETIC DISEASES THAT THE ASHKENAZI SUFFER FROM.

            “We tested 3,104 Jewish individuals, primarily of Ashkenazi descent, for the two most common FAC mutations, IVS4 and 322delG. Thirty-five IVS4 carriers were identified, for a carrier frequency of 1 in 89. To determine if the IVS4 mutation was confined to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, we tested 563 Iraqi Jews for IVS4, and no carriers were found. Because the IVS4 mutation has only been found on chromosomes of Ashkenazi Jewish origin.” (Source: Laboratory of Human Genetics and Hematology, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021-6399, USA)

          • Helen4Yemen

            Ido Efrati Nov 26, 2013
            Haaretz Correspondent
            Israeli and American scientists have discovered a gene among Ashkenazi Jews that increases their chances of developing the mental disorder schizophrenia, as well schizoaffective disorder and manic depression. According to a study recently published in Nature Communications, the gene in question raises Ashkenazi Jews’ chances of experiencing the disorders by roughly 40%, and by 15% in the general population.
            The study was conducted by Professor Ariel Darvasi, assistant dean of the Faculty of Life Sciences at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, in coordination with Dr. Todd Lencz from The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research in New York. The first portion of the study included the largest-ever sample group of Ashkenazi Jews ever researched. Of the 2,500 Ashkenazi Jews from Israel who contributed DNA samples for the study, 1,500 were healthy, while 1,000 were affected by mental disorders related to schizophrenia.
            The reason for choosing Ashkenazi Jews as the subject for the study, of all groups available, is rooted in the fact that Ashkenazi Jews are considered to be a an especially homogenous group, in terms of genetics. The limited genetic variation among Ashkenazi Jews allows for easy identification of differences between healthy and affected individuals. Professor Darvasi has studied Ashkenazi Jews for many years and employed the latest technology available to analyze the DNA samples he received for the study.
            “Current technology allows for very comprehensive DNA analysis and the ability to read millions of SNP points – basically, links in the DNA chain – at the same time, which makes for very effective scanning of DNA,” Darvasi told Haaretz. During the first part of the study, the scientists checked for the prevalence of the NDST3 gene, which exists in 99.9% of the population. “But there are two specific variations of it that stand out among those with these disorders,” Darvasi said. The results of the study found that Ashkenazi Jews who have the variations are 40 percent more likely to contract a schizophrenia-related disorder than those without it.
            Checking the samples collected from Ashkenazi Jews was only the first part of the experiment. Following the compilation of thee results, the scientists began the second stage – a more comprehensive examination of other population groups. “After we saw that the first sample was relevant, we continued to investigate the connection between the gene and the diseases among other populations from around the world. In the end, samples from over 25,000 people were checked, including people from Europe, Asia and Africa – which basically covers all the primary ethnicities of the human race,” explained Darvasi.
            The larger sample group also found a correlation between schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and manic depression and the prevalence of the NDST3 gene, although the numbers were lower. “In terms of the larger sample group, the prevalence of that same gene increased the chances of contracting the diseases by 15% on average, in the other populations that were studied,” continued Darvasi.
            The study took roughly three years, and was funded by an initial grant of $2.1 million from the National Health Institute in the United States. Based on their results, the scientists earned another grant of $3 million to continue their research.
            Roughly 1% of the population is affected by schizophrenia. Those with the disease lose interest in their surroundings, develop dark emotions and sometimes imagine hearing voices or seeing figures that do not exist. Many scientists believe that genes have a great deal of influence on the disease, alongside other environmental and hereditary factors. It has proven difficult to identify the genes associated with the disease, as there is clearly more than one gene responsible.
            Professor Darvasi himself has been searching for the genetic connection to schizophrenia for years, primarily by researching groups of Ashkenazi Jews. In 2002, a team of scientists he led claimed that a gene called COMT is one of the causes of the disease, responsible for some 20% of all cases of schizophrenia. “We keep adding more information and discovering more genes, we hope to report in the future on more finds like this, with the help of larger samples. That’s what we’re working on now,” said Darvasi.

          • Helen4Yemen

            Tell me what it is you know about the ‘diaspora’

            a) How many people left?
            b) How did they travel? (mode of transportation)?
            c) What was the male/female ratio of those who traveled?
            d) What percentage stayed behind?
            e) Did any babies, old people, young kids travel?
            f) What was their first destination.
            f) What was the point of departure?
            h) How long did it take them from departure to destination?

          • peepsqueek

            What does this have to do with Ahwazi Arabs in Iran? How far from the subject do you always want to take this discussion?

            To answer one of your questions with absolute knowledge, there are synagogues in Rome that predate Jesus. Pompeii was destroyed in 67 AD, and Jewish homes were revealed in the excavations.

          • Helen4Yemen

            Is something wrong with you? You said:

            “The Jews of Rome came as slaves after the Romans sacked Jerusalem several times.”

            Then I told you there is no proof the Romans expelled the Jews. I proved my case when I asked you to tell me what it is you know about the ‘diaspora’. As I expected you know nothing!

            Shlomo Sand, Jewish author of :The Invention of the Jewish People

            __ “As an Israeli citizen, as a historian – I can tell you that 10 years ago I believed that Judean society was exiled by the Romans. Discovering that it’s a myth, it was shocking for me.”

          • Helen4Yemen

            THE EXODUS: DOES ARCHAEOLOGY HAVE A SAY?
            BY STEPHEN GABRIEL ROSENBERG APRIL 14, 2014

            The Exodus is so fundamental to us and our Jewish sources that it is embarrassing that there is no evidence outside of the Bible to support it.

            The short answer is “no.” The whole subject of the Exodus is embarrassing to archaeologists. The Exodus is so fundamental to us and our Jewish sources that it is embarrassing that there is no evidence outside of the Bible to support it. So we prefer not to talk about it, and hate to be asked about it.

            For the account in the Torah is the basis of our people’s creation, it is the basis of our existence and it is the basis of our important Passover festival and the whole Haggada that we recite on the first evening of this festival of freedom. So that makes archaeologists reluctant to have to tell our brethren and ourselves that there is nothing in Egyptian records to support it. Nothing on the slavery of the Israelites, nothing on the plagues that persuaded Pharaoh to let them go, nothing on the miraculous crossing of the Red Sea, nothing.

            Nothing at all. There are three Pharaohs who said they got rid of the hated foreigners, but nothing to say who the foreigners were, and no Pharaoh is named as having persecuted foreign slaves or suffered unspeakable plagues.

          • Helen4Yemen

            “To answer one of your questions”

            Why only one? Meaning you know NOTHING about your
            oft-repeated “diaspora’. I rest my case!

          • peepsqueek

            I am not here to answer all of your questions, because half the time you still do not get it anyway. Your questions are just to take the readers further from the original article, which is obvious.

          • Helen4Yemen

            You cannot answer it for the same reason you cannot tell me how those who claim to be descended from Abrham of Ur, Iraq, are the purest of the pure Europeans at 99.9% European DNA. It does not get any purer than 99.9%, does it? Then tell me where are the “Israelites” that were left behind or did they all do the ‘diaspora’?

          • Helen4Yemen

            Israelis from Iraq remember Babylon

            Published: 2007/05/07

            By Lipika Pelham

            Jerusalem

            During the Shia festival of Muharram we would take part in the procession and along with our Arab friends, beat our chests to remember the epic battle of Karbala, said Yakov Reuveni, remembering his youth in 1940s Iraq.

            My best friend was the son of the mayor of Ammara. After school we would go out to the date palm grove with the freshly caught fish from the river Hidekel, which we would barbeque in the fields over an open fire.

            Among his most cherished memories, says Yakov, is the after-school stroll along the riverbank with his Arab friend.

            He grew up in a moderately well-to-do Jewish home with his parents, four siblings and grandparents.

            His father had a clothing store in the heart of Ammara’s central market.

            Nostalgia

            It was an easy, happy life. Jews shared almost all aspects of life with their Arab neighbours, reminisces Yakov.

            He was 17 years old in 1951, when his family emigrated to Jerusalem.

            For the Jews of Middle Eastern origins, like their European co-religionists, coming to Israel was the culmination of a religious journey – it was the fulfilment of the centuries-old dream to live in the Promised Land.

            “ I still think in Arabic, still I can’t string together all my thoughts in Hebrew. You have to understand, my mother tongue is Arabic

            But many who fled the Arab states and came to Israel as part of the mass migration that followed the creation of the Jewish state in 1948, look back with nostalgia and fondness for the life that they had left behind.

            Israel has a vibrant Iraqi Jewish community who arrived throughout the 1950s. Many Iraqi Jews settled in the area known as Mahane Yehuda in the heart of west Jerusalem.

            It is a famous market with alleyways lined with grocery shops: rows after rows of shops laden with colourful fruit and vegetables, fresh fish, dried fruit, sweets, different kinds of bread, cheese, traditional salted fish.

            These stores are still mostly owned by the descendants of the Iraqi and Kurdish Jewish immigrants.

            Fish feast

            The most memorable taste was the fish called maskuf, from the river Hidekel, says Yakov.

            After the Sabbath, we would wander off to the fields and have a feast with fish cooked on the spit, Iraqi pita and arak.

            After maskuf and arak, a strong aniseed flavoured local alcoholic drink, the boys would go to Ammara’s club to watch belly dancing.

            “ Most of us still feel connected to the country where we or our ancestors came from. Our parents and our grandparents still remember many things from their Iraqi past and they bring them to us, with food, music, language ”

            Yakov recalls, with vivid, powerful details, the life that he had once led, a life that was changed overnight by the political realities of the time.

            “We used to eat kubbeh and bamia, or okra. The kubbeh, made with minced lamb, was the national food for the Jews all over Iraq. Thursday was the day of khitchri – it’s a dish cooked with rice and lentils.

            I still think in Arabic, still I can’t string together all my thoughts in Hebrew. You have to understand, my mother tongue is Arabic,”” says Yakov.”

            But, while anti-Jewish sentiment flared up after the creation of Israel and the subsequent Arab-Israeli war in 1948-49, discrimination and attacks on Jews were part of life in Iraq.

            In the most notorious incident, mobs rampaged through the Jewish district of Baghdad killing an estimated 170 Jews in 1941, in what became known as the Farhoud massacre.

            By 1952, 120,000 Jews, about three quarters of the community, had fled Iraq for Israel.

            Thinking in Arabic

            In the heart of the Mahane Yehuda market is Cafe Mizrakhi, which specialises in certain traditional delicacies from Iraq. The word Mizrakhi means Oriental Jews.

            It is owned by Eli Mizrakhi, whose family came from northern Iraq, or what is now known as Iraqi Kurdistan.

            Most of us still feel connected to the country where we or our ancestors came from. Our parents and our grandparents still remember many things from their Iraqi past and they bring them to us, with food, music, language.

            Both Eli and Yakov agree that despite having gone through the process of assimilation into Israel, they keep alive many aspects of their previous lives, in particular, Iraqi food and speaking Arabic.

            “We used to eat kubbeh and bamia, or okra. The kubbeh, made with minced lamb, was the national food for the Jews all over Iraq. Thursday was the day of khitchri – it’s a dish cooked with rice and lentils.

            I still think in Arabic, still I can’t string together all my thoughts in Hebrew. You have to understand, my mother tongue is Arabic,”” says Yakov.”

            Now living in a small cottage with his wife in south Jerusalem, Yakov keeps himself busy recreating sweet pickled orange from his youth, while longing to someday return to Babylon.

            Story from BBC NEWS:

          • Helen4Yemen

            Your problem now is DNA. The Ashkenazi has no trace of ME ancestry – zero – zilch!

            Tony Kushner DNA
            97.5% Ashkenazi
            0.1% Finnish
            0.1% Scandinavian
            2.2% Broadly European
            0.1% East Asian
            99.9% European
            0.0% Middle Eastern

            Rabbi Hammerman DNA
            97.2% Ashkenazi
            0.8% East European
            0.2% Southern European
            1.7% Broadly European
            0.1% Native American
            99.9% European
            0.0% Middle Eastern

            Joseph Cohen DNA
            96.2% Ashkenazi
            0.4% Eastern European
            0.1% N. European
            0.1% Southern European
            3.0% Broadly European
            0.1% East Asian
            0.1% Unassigned
            0.0% Middle East
            99.8% European
            0.0% Middle Eastern

            Alan Dershowitz DNA
            98. 5% Ashkenazi
            0.4% Southern European
            0.1% Balkan
            0.9% Broadly European
            0.1% East Asian
            99.9% European
            0.0% Middle Eastern

          • Helen4Yemen

            The Ashkenazi are one of the purest European groups around with DNA results at 99.9% European. That is very pure European.

            1) Alan Dershowitz.. 99.9% European … 0% Middle Eastern
            2) Alex Feinberg….. 99.8% European … 0% Middle Eastern
            3) Bill Maher……… 99.9% European … 0% Middle Eastern
            4) Harry Katz……… 99.9% European … 0% Middle Eastern
            5) Joseph Cohen….. 99.8% European … 0% Middle Eastern
            6) Neil Gaiman…….. 99.9% European … 0% Middle Eastern
            7) Rabbi Hammerman .. 99.9% European … 0% Middle Eastern
            8) Tony Kushner………. 99.9% European … 0% Middle Eastern

            https://disqus*com/home/channel/semite/discussion/channel-semite/stunning_ashkenazi_dna/
            (Replace * with dot)

          • peepsqueek

            You know we can both play this game all day long, but why to you continuously have this issue, even if the article is about Ahwazi Arabs and Iran? Are Ashkenazi your only ambition in life?

          • Helen4Yemen

            I would love to play that game. I have listed 8 Ashkenazi DNA reports and provided the original source for that data? Please play this game with me and show me just one DNA result of any Ashkenazi who has even a score of 1% ME. There are none! How many times did I ask you to provide me with just ond DNA report? Did you not admit to me that you were UNABLE to come up with any Ashkenazi DNA. Funny, very funny! How many million Ashkenazi are there in the world? Millions and you can’t find one DNA for any Ashkenazi. Let’s stop pretending. Millions of the Ashkenazi were raised believing that they are not European but Middle Eastern (they look vividly very European). The shock they must feel when they look at their DNA results and notice there is not even a tiny trace of anything Middle Easter. Here is a guy who was confused how as a Jew his DNA came out totally blank of any ME ancestry. Here is what he said:

            “Am I really ethnically Jewish? 23andme says that I’m 91.8% Ashkenazi but I’m 99.8% European. I thought that I’d have some mid-eastern background if I was truly genetically Jewish. This question is not about religion or my religious beliefs. I am not a religious Jew. My family is very secular Jewry. All my
            relative on both sides of my family are Jewish.”

            These were his DNA results

            91.8 Ashkenazi
            0.9% Southern European
            0.4% Eastern European
            6.8% Nonspecific European
            0.1% African
            0.1% East Asian
            0.0% Middle Eastern
            99.8% Total European

            https://www*quora*com/Am-I-really-ethnically-Jewish-23andme-says-that-Im-91-8-Ashkenazi-but-Im-99-8-European

            (Replace * with dot)

          • peepsqueek

            It is the only game in town for you. Where is your test results for millions of Ashkenazi that have never been DNA tested? Where do I find these results? The more important issue is that neither the Crusaders nor the Nazis paused to ask whether someone was Ashkenazi or Sephardi, pious or unlearned, before slaughtering a Jew(s). The Jews were Christ killers to the Church, and genetically inferior to the Nazis were the excuses. Do you think DNA testing would have saved the millions who are slaughtered ? And when a Palestinian terrorist launches an attack, he doesn’t stop to assess whether his intended victim is wearing a kippa, or no headcovering at all, whether he is Ashkenazi, Sephardic or Mizrahi? They have struck Jews across the centuries regardless of their genetic, political, social, economic or religious standing. Do you get the point! Do you think DNA is relevant to Islamic terrorists?? And now Middle East Christians are again taking a beating as well.

          • Helen4Yemen

            Ashkenazi Jews = AJ

            You do not seem to understand how these surveys work. Take the example of the one below. They tested 3,104 AJ and 563 Iraq Jews. Then they were able to determine that the carrier rate among the AJ for this particular genetic disease was 1 in 89 and they also determined that the Iraq Jews were not affected at all by this particular genetic disease. Did they have to test the millions of AJ in order to arrive at that conclusion? No! If they tested 10,000 or 1 million, the carrier rate among the AJ would still be 1 in 89. Similarly, Ancestry dot com have listed on their website what are the DNA rates on average for each group. For the AJ, it is 96% “AJ DNA”, for the Irish, it is 95% Irish, for the people of the Middle East, it is only 69% Middle Eastern indicating quite a bit of mixing. The AJ just like the Irish have been breeding only within the same group. I am surprised that you asked such a silly question. For example today, I came across 3 AJ DNA tests? How much do they resemble what I already have. They are very similar. Take a look:

            Jill Sobule:
            Ashkenazi = 99%
            Other = 0.1%

            A. J. Jacobs
            Ashkenazi = 99.9%
            Other = 0.1%

            Alisa Robbins Doctoroff
            Ashkenazi = 98%
            Other = 0.2%

            See what I mean?
            __________________________________________
            “We tested 3,104 Jewish individuals, primarily of Ashkenazi descent, for the two most common FAC mutations, IVS4 and 322delG. Thirty-five IVS4 carriers were identified, for a carrier frequency of 1 in 89. To determine if the IVS4 mutation was confined to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, we tested 563 Iraqi Jews for IVS4, and no carriers were found. Because the IVS4 mutation has only been found on chromosomes of Ashkenazi Jewish origin.” (Source: Laboratory of Human Genetics and Hematology, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021-6399, USA)

          • Helen4Yemen

            You seem to be confused! The AJ are in Palestine claiming ancestral ties to that specific land. We have known all along that these are totally a European people, all you have to do is look at them! But countered that by saying that there are light skinned blond and blue eyes Arabs. They are a tiny minority. But DNA is science and it is very precise. We have been talking DNA for many months now and during all that time you could not counter my DNA reports with one of your own because there are no AJ who have ME DNA. None! What is even weird is that millions of people in Southern Europe carry large levels of ME DNA, as high as 20% and they do not claim land or ancestry to the region, on the other hand the AJ who is totally empty of ME ancestry is the one who claims the land based on his DNA. If not the fake ancestry, please tell me what else the European bases his claim on?

          • peepsqueek

            Like I have explained before, since Jews, as a collective people, have had the same fate for being Jews regardless of their genetic mixes throughout the centuries, almost as intensely ignorant as the “one drop rule” was for Africans under the slave trade and Jim Crow. Israel has multiple reasons to exist, whether you like it or not.

            There was no DNA issues to save Jews of Syria and Lebanon, then a single country under French Mandate, were saved because British forces conquered the region in June, 1941. But Jews in Morocco and Algeria did not fare as well.

            The Vichy government introduced “Nuremberg Laws” French style. Jewish students were expelled form schools. Jewish officials were fired from government jobs and restrictions were imposed on all Jews, regardless of DNA.

            In Morocco and Algeria, Jewish community leaders were detained in desert prison camps and the food ration for Jews was reduced below that of the rest of the population. The Military Governor of Morocco signed an order establishing concentration camps for Jews, regardless of DNA

            In Algeria, a Jewish council or Judenrat, was established to assist in the implementation of the Nazi plan. Adolf Eichmann’s envoy to France, Theodor Danker, drafted plans to transport Jews to Marseilles by sea and then by train to Auschwitz. The Allied invasion of North Africa on November 8, 1942, saved the Jews there from annihilation. But Jews were killed by the Nazis or their collaborators in Tunisia and in Iraq, regardless of DNA.

          • Helen4Yemen

            “Mizrahi Jews, Bene HaMizrah (“Sons of the East”) or Oriental Jews, are Jews descended from local Jewish communities of the Middle East from biblical times”

            Therefore, you are saying the Ashkenazi and the Arab Jews are genetic cousins?

            Why do you always leave out the African Jews?

          • peepsqueek

            We have discussed Egyptian, Moroccan, etc North African Jews, I don’t know very much of about Sub-Saharan African Jews in ancient texts. Please direct me to your primary source that you want to discuss.

          • Helen4Yemen

            Is the Ashkenazi a blood relative of the Jews from Zimbabwe?

            Zimbabwe black Jews should do Aliyah

            It may sound like another myth of a lost tribe of Israel, but British scientists have carried out DNA tests which have confirmed their Semitic origin.

            “They have a common ancestor who geneticists say lived about 3,000 years ago somewhere in north Arabia, which is the time of Moses and Aaron when the Jewish priesthood started.”

            Despite their ties to Judaism, many of the Lemba in Zimbabwe are Christians, while some are Muslims.

            “So it’s the closest descendant of the Ark that we know of,”
            Prof Parfitt says.

            http://news bbc co uk/2/hi/8550614 stm

        • Helen4Yemen

          “prior to the tiny Jewish State of Israel”

          Why can’t the Ashkenazi get as much land as he is entitled to in his own Europe? You keep saying “tiny” forgetting that the Ashkenazi who is totally European is not entitled to even 1 square inch of Palestine. Please give me a convincing reason why this white man is on Arab land.

  • abu antar

    Interesting article. thanks

  • Helen4Yemen

    “The Iranian regime often draws upon its “resistance” credentials, frequently condemning Israel’s forcible expropriation of Palestinian people’s lands and homes as well as the expulsion of the people themselves, referring to these acts as crimes against humanity and systematic ethnic cleansing. Iran also makes regular and vociferous arguments that the international community should take punitive action against Israel by introducing sanctions.”

    That is right and I knew that after your first paragraph that you were going to start your mudslinging against Iran. No time to waste on sectarian propaganda – I skipped over the rest of the article. European Jews seized Arab land and 70 years on, they have not be removed from the land. It is a major shame on everyone that calls himself-herself an Arab and a Muslim that their highest priority must be to make sure that these foreigners are sent back on a safe journey home. But they are still clinging as the Muslim world is divided along sectarian lines. It is such a shame.